Editorial introduction

"The amount of material is quite appalling. He was a shocking hoarder."

(Harrod to Macmillan, referring to Keynes, 21 April 1948, in MaP)

The Papers of Roy Harrod

As well as an extremely prolific writer, Harrod was also a careful collector of the documents he and others produced. In the course of his life he gathered tens of thousands of items of correspondence, papers and memoranda, notes, books, pamphlets, newspaper clippings, galley proofs and earlier drafts of his own books and articles. He described himself as having "some instinct for hoarding", and kept in high regard "the unknown researcher of the future" for whom he ordered and preserved his papers. [1]

Most of these documents are accessible to researchers, although unfortunately on Harrod's death they were sold in seven separate batches and have ended up in three continents--more precisely, in Japan in the libraries of the Nagoya University of Commerce and Business Administration, Chiba University of Commerce, and Tokyo University; [2] in the United States, in the library of Georgetown University in Washington; and in Britain, in the British Library in London (which bought three collections).

As to the thousands of letters Harrod wrote, when extant, these are preserved in the archives where the papers of his correspondents are held. Not all of them have been as meticulous as Harrod in preserving their mail, but nonetheless it has been possible to reconstruct several complete, or at any rate very informative, exchanges of correspondence. Among the most important of these repositories one should mention King's College (where the papers of Keynes, Kahn, Joan Robinson and Kaldor are deposited), Trinity College (Robertson Papers), and Churchill College in Cambridge (Churchill and Hawtrey Papers), Nuffield College in Oxford (Lindemann and Henderson Papers), and the British Library of Political and Economic Science (Meade; Andrews and Brunner; Durbin; Cannan; and Beveridge Papers).

A brief description of the papers preserved by Harrod and available to researchers will illustrate the wealth and variety of the source, and give the reader some idea of the editorial problems to which this gives rise.

1. The Harrod Collection at the Nagoya University of Commerce and Business Administration

This collection was acquired in 1979. The cataloging began in 1992, and was completed in December 1995. Finding aids are available at the library.

This collection consists of different kinds of materials, totaling about 16,200 items: Harrod's working library, including journals, [3] books, and offprints by himself and by other authors, and 23 boxes of documents, including notes, correspondence, memoranda, and minutes. These items are organized as follows.

HARRJOUR includes 350 records of journal issues containing articles, reviews, or comments by Harrod. HARRMONO includes 273 records of books (some being translations), monographs, or journal offprints by Harrod.

ROYBOOKS lists 1545 items of books and other monographs, almost exclusively on economics and related subjects, which were owned by Harrod; some of these are accompanied by other materials, such as printers' advertisements and complimentary cards, but also letters from the authors or notes by Harrod (the accompanying materials, including those coming together with items belonging to different sections, are listed in a separate file). JOURNALS includes the holdings of 275 journals, newsletters, and magazines subscribed to or held by Harrod, for a total of 8158 pieces.

OFFPRINTS includes 1418 offprints of journal articles by other authors, many of which are inscribed; some of these are also accompanied by other materials, including letters. HARRMISC includes 517 records of items in series and offprints by other authors.

HMSO includes 282 records of items published by the British Government, while USGPO includes 52 records of publications for the United States Government. LEAGUE includes 45 League of Nations publications.

The almost 2900 boxed items include: several press releases, reports, statistics and articles (a total of over 580 items) by diverse British governmental bodies; documents relating to the activity of the Oxford Economists Research Group, 1936-38 (questions for discussion, questionnaires, minutes of meetings and of interviews with entrepreneurs, essays and memoranda, notes, and correspondence, for a total of approximately 330 items); documents relating to the Conference on Trade in a Developing World, Brissago, September 1961 (typescripts of the papers, Harrod's manuscript and notes, and correspondence between Harrod and J. Bhagwati, M. Bye, B. P. Dyatchenko, G. Haberler, H. G. Johnson, C. P. Kindleberger, W. A. Lewis, J. Meade, D. MacDougall, J. Viner, E. A. G. Robinson, P. Samuelson, F. Modigliani, and others, totalling approximately 380 items); miscellaneous galleys, typescripts, and manuscripts by other authors, 1935-76, including M. Allen, E. Bernstein, R. Frisch, N. Kaldor, E. Lindahl, J. Marschak, W. Beveridge, and J. Tinbergen, some accompanied by related correspondence, for a total of about 140 items); a series of Harrod's reports, typescripts, and manuscripts, 1954-71 (107 items); Harrod's juvenalia (60 items, including notebooks, school examinations, notes on reading, and some speeches); materials relating to the International Monetary Fund (129 items, including some research reports, official documents, and correspondence); materials relating to the Seminar on Asian Trade, Karachi, December 1961-January 1962, and to the Conference on Inflation and Growth in Latin America, Rio de Janeiro, January 1963 (82 items); documents relating to the European League for Economic Cooperation, 1948-76 (about 700 items); and materials related to the United Nations (Economic Employment Commission, Economic and Social Council, etc., about 170 items).

2. The Harrod Papers at Chiba University of Commerce

The collection of The Papers of Sir Roy Harrod, which comprises the richest documentary evidence relating to Harrod's professional and political activities, was acquired in 1984 by the Chiba University of Commerce in Ichikawa, Japan.

It consists of about 15,000 leaves, kept in 94 boxes. Scholars have access to photocopies only, which are made at the scholar's request and cannot be further reproduced. [4] However, the most important items have already been photocopied, and are neatly arranged in open drawers, offering a rich vision of the whole field and enabling simultaneous examination of diverse materials.

The documents constituting this collection have been preliminarily cataloged by the bookseller who negotiated the sale of the papers, and the catalog still provides the guidelines for the reclassification which is presently in process. [5] It was printed in 60 copies as The Papers of Sir Roy Harrod, Hamish Riley-Smith Booksellers, Norfolk, undated ([1982] [6] ), which were presumably distributed to bidders. A number of these are therefore accessible to scholars: specimens can be found, for instance, at Cambridge University Library, the Bodleian and Nuffield College libraries in Oxford, and the University of London Library; Chiba University of Commerce possesses a copy printed at a later stage. As the individual items are re-classified by the librarians at Chiba University of Commerce, a description is made available and searchable in the Internet via the CUC library home page (URL: http://www.lib.cuc.ac.jp/english/index.html ).

The documents have been classified in seven broad categories. The first part comprises letters, manuscripts and memoranda written by Keynes (or, in a few cases, relating to some of Keynes's writings). It also includes some letters to Keynes (among which are some from Harrod), wartime memoranda, and six photographs. All these are dated between 1911 and 1946. There are also documents relating to Keynes's life, some of Harrod's writings on Keynes, and miscellaneous ephemera. Some are originals, some carbon copies, some photocopies. Most of Keynes's letters were addressed to Harrod, but there are also a few letters addressed to Hawtrey, Robertson, MacDougall, Tinbergen, and others. These items are individually described in some detail by Riley-Smith.

The second group of documents relates to the writing of Harrod's biography of Keynes. It comprises the letters Harrod received from members of Keynes's family (Lydia, Geoffrey, Margaret Neville Hill, but especially Keynes's mother), from Keynes's friends and colleagues and from other people who were in contact with him--including Kahn, Beveridge, Henderson, Meade, Pigou, Hayek, and E. A. G. Robinson, to cite but a few. Some of Harrod's replies are also preserved. Together with the correspondence, Harrod preserved the notes and card index he used while writing the manuscript, the galley proofs (two copies of which are annotated by Kahn and Keynes's mother), reviews and press cuttings relating to the book, and letters he received after publication.

The third part of the collection contains the main body of Harrod's economic, philosophical, political, and academic correspondence. Most of the early correspondence preserved here is one-sided: up to part of the 1950s, Harrod mainly wrote letters in his own hand, and copies only exist as a result of the rare occasions when he sent letters off to be typed. Thereafter, typed copies are more frequent.

About 1200 letters and a number of notes, articles and clippings are grouped in a few cases by theme, but generally by correspondent, whose list reads as a who's who in economics; politicians and philosophers are very well represented too. Although the catalog has not left any clues as to the process of classification, on several occasions it is apparent that the ordering was to some extent organized by Harrod himself. Some blocks of correspondence, in fact, are prefaced by later notes in Harrod's hand providing a summary description of their content, or a memory relating to the occasion on which a piece was written, or stressing the interest of a particular exchange for historians of thought. [7] It is therefore clear that Harrod periodically tidied up his files, and arranged them himself, not only for his own convenience in terms of searching and reference, but also to bequeath them as a legacy to the history of economics. As to whether, and to what extent, this process has been selective, we can only speculate. [8] It is certain however that the present ordering reflects, but partly obscures, Harrod's intent: the frequent disruptions in the numbering of the items reveals that materials found elsewhere at a later stage were slipped into folders to which they did not originally belong.

There are also four boxes of miscellaneous correspondence in this section of the catalog, each containing several hundred items (letter and clippings), and a box containing miscellaneous proofs, reviews, and press cuttings, all grouped by subject.

The fourth group of items is a collection of the most disparate documents: we find Harrod's undergraduate notebooks (a part of which contain notes taken during the lectures as well as annotations regarding his readings), the reading notes taken in his first years as Student of Christ Church, some of his lecture notes, the preliminary draft (or drafts) of some of his books and articles, including some galley proofs, some of his early unpublished essays and memoranda and other later writings, over one hundred typescripts of articles written for Nihon Keizai Shimbun, 34 written for the Bank of Tokyo Review and other articles for various publications, and the typescripts of a few book reviews. Several of these items are accompanied by correspondence relating to them.

The fifth section of the catalog groups the documents relating to various activities in which Harrod took part. Some of these were connected to his academic life (the Bodleian Library Commission, the Civil Service Commission, the Royal Economic Society), some to his political activities (the Popular Front before the war, Liberal Party candidate in 1945, his attempt to seek a nomination as a Conservative candidate in 1950, the European League for Economic Cooperation), some to his participation in the civil service (the Statistical Branch during wartime, the evidence he gave before the commissions on Population and on Equal Pay, his membership to the United Nations Sub-Commission on Employment and Economic Stability, his position as economic adviser to the IMF), some to economic policy and propaganda (population, the House of Commons Monetary Committee). Most of these files also contain extensive correspondence.

The sixth part of the Collection documents Harrod's academic life, and includes documents and correspondence relating to his visits to foreign universities, his teaching in Britain and his participation in economic conferences.

Finally, the last section contains books by Harrod, offprints of some of his articles, and offprints and pamphlets by other authors, some of which are inscribed.

3. The Harrod-Woodruff Collection, Georgetown University Library, Washington, DC.

This collection, acquired from Lady Harrod in 1986 through Hamish Riley-Smith bookseller, consists of a box containing 48 letters and four postcards from John Douglas Woodruff to Roy Harrod, 1922-46 (most of the items, however, relate to the period 1922-29), and one letter from Mrs. Woodruff to Lady Harrod, 1978, arranged in chronological order. The finding aid, processed by March 1988, individually describes each item, and provides a name index ( http://gulib.lausun.georgetown.edu/dept/speccoll/cl218.htm ).

The items in this collection complement the folder of letters from Harrod to Woodruff in the Douglas Woodruff Papers, also housed in the Special Collection Division of Georgetown University Library. Photocopies of the items of both collections can be obtained.

4. John Maynard Keynes and Roy Harrod--Letters and Memoranda at Tokyo University

This collection, purchased in December 1989, consists of 227 items, preserved in three boxes. It has been photocopied in its entirety and bound in five volumes; scholars have access to these, and can in turn make further copies. The whole collection, however, is online at http://www.lib.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp/keynes_harrod/index.htm . As in the case of the Harrod Papers at Chiba University of Commerce, the catalog was prepared by the dealer and probably distributed to the potential bidders. The listing is exhaustive and quite detailed, with the exception of some of the letters in part VI of the collection, which are grouped by correspondent and not individually described. Re-cataloging has therefore not been undertaken.

The 227 items have been classified in six parts. The first includes 19 letters and postcards from Keynes to Harrod, from 1922 to 1938, a letter from Bonn to Keynes, and an offprint of Keynes's article in the September 1938 issue of the Economic Journal.

The second part includes 47 items, dated between 1941 and 1943, mainly letters and memoranda exchanged between Keynes and Harrod, but also a memorandum by James Meade to Robbins and a copy--addressed to Harrod--of a letter from W. F. Crick to Keynes.

Part III includes one item only: an autograph recollection of Keynes at Eaton written by Bernard Swithinbank in 1948.

The fourth part consists of 40 notes and memoranda, dated between 1941 and 1943, by Harrod and others (including Henderson, Keynes, F. Leith-Ross, Kingsley Wood, Meade, and Macgregor), on problems relating to war and postwar policy.

Part V includes 35 items of correspondence, dating from November 1941 to January 1943, between Harrod and Richard Hopkins, Lindemann, Dalton, Gerard Clauson, Nigel Roland, A. W. Hurst, Robbins, Playfair, Gaitskell, Desmond Morton, F. W. Leith-Ross, W. Eady, and W. F. Crick.

The last part includes 83 letters Harrod received from his fellow economists, philosophers, and others between 1922 and 1974, mainly regarding economics. Among the authors of these letters--cataloged in alphabetical order--are Clapham, Edgeworth, I. Fisher, Haberler, Hayek, Hicks, Kahn, Lindsay, MacGregor, Palyi, Phelps Brown, Robertson, Joan Robinson, and Taussig; among the philosophers one may cite Braithwaite, Joseph, Price, Ramsey, and Whitehead.

5. British Library (Harrod Papers, three Additions)

The British Library acquired three collections of Harrod Papers in February 1992, January 1994, and January 1995. Totaling more than 25,000 leaves arranged in 121 folders, this is the richest collection of Harrod's private correspondence. Most of the documents, in fact, are letters Harrod received from his friends and relatives, from his years at Westminster School to his death in 1978. These are primarily of a personal character, but the collection also includes some academic and professional correspondence, mainly relating to postwar years (in particular some of Harrod's philosophical writings, correspondence relating to the Economic Journal, to Harrod's Life of John Maynard Keynes, The Prof., and other publications), and other documents relating to the population question, Liberal Party politics, Harrod's academic visits abroad, and so on. The collection also includes private correspondence of Lady Harrod. A list of the principal correspondents is given in the section on Personal and Routine Correspondence, [jump to page] .

All these documents are open to researchers. They have been cataloged in house, in chronological order by author. However, as each batch was processed at the time of acquisition, the cataloging could not be entirely consistent: on a number of occasions, letters from the same correspondent written during overlapping periods have been filed in different folders. The catalog, available at the library and on the Internet at http://molcat.bl.uk , should be consulted by addition number: Harrod Papers, Add 71181-71197; Supplementary Harrod Papers, Add 71609-71620; Second Supplementary Harrod Papers, Add 72727-72818.

The present edition

The combination of Harrod's prolific writing and meticulous preservation of documents enables us to have access to thousands of letters and several unpublished essays, some of which are extremely important to the history of economics or give interesting insight into philosophical, political or broadly cultural matters.

The overwhelming amount of surviving material, however, cannot be published in its entirety, and the editor is therefore faced with the task of selection. In the first place it is necessary to define the period of interest. The choice of the interwar years was somewhat natural, firstly because it includes the beginning and consolidation of Harrod's academic career and reputation, secondly because it includes the era during which Harrod produced an extraordinary number of theoretical tools and notions at a rate unequalled in the following years, and thirdly because it coincides with two decades of unique theorethical inventiveness in economics, echoes of which are abundant in the writings reproduced here. Harrod's correspondence and unpublished essays enable the reader to enter the mental laboratory where some concepts and instruments which gave fundamental impulse to contemporary and later economic thought were originally forged.

However, once the decision regarding the relevant period is made, a more subtle problem arises: one has to evaluate what is "interesting" and deserves publication, and this involves a certain measure of subjectivity. Besides depending on the nature of the documents at hand, the choice necessarily reflects the editor's interests and is based on a preliminary decision on intended readership. The criterion adopted here is to reproduce the documents which provide insight into Harrod's career as an economist, his contributions to this subject, his philosophical interests, his political passion and activities, and the debates in which he was engaged.

But in the case of an author with such a wide range of interests and activities as Harrod, whatever the editor's decision, something of interest to other researchers is bound to be left out. For example, his purely private correspondence gives a portrait of an era seen from the viewpoint of an Oxford don, and provides a characterization of the personalities of several of his contemporaries. Moreover, Harrod was also involved in administration; he gave advice on policy matters, he wrote letters to, and articles for, the press, he was active in politics, he advised on publications of a literary nature and so on. All these activities are evident in the surviving correspondence, and could be of interest to some researcher.

The problem of selecting the materials to be published therefore has a second aspect: the editor has to decide what to do with what is not sufficiently interesting. A simple discarding would deprive some scholars of relevant pieces of information and would not accurately portray the multifarious facets of Harrod's interests and passions. It is therefore necessary to inform the reader of the nature and location of the material left out.

The solution adopted here is to reproduce in full the letters thought to be of high interest according to the criterion described above. Hundreds of letters, however, retain some interest according to the same criterion; these are listed as calendar entries (their number is followed by the letter R), with indication of their location, a short summary of their content and sometimes a quote. Finally, the location of the purely personal letters, uninteresting according to the criterion adopted here, is given in another section. Since most of these have been cataloged in separate files by the libraries where they are held, it was easy to provide a collective rather than an individual description. In addition to the information regarding the letters found so far, a special section lists the documents and the letters to and from Harrod not yet found but referred to in other documents.

Following the normal practice of correspondence editing, both the letters reproduced in full and the calendar entries have been arranged in chronological order, to permit tracing the unfolding of Harrod's and his correspondents' ideas and to enable a future edition of later papers and correspondence without overlapping and inconsistencies. Some items which could not be dated with a reasonable approximation are grouped in a section at the end of the chronological entries.

Besides the correspondence, other items are of interest for the general reader. Firstly, several unpublished essays, notes, memoranda, a withdrawn article and a few preliminary versions of published papers survive. Most of these are of considerable interest in themselves, and at any rate are precious for an understanding of Harrod's personality or the development of his ideas. A selection is therefore published in chronological order. This only excluded three juvenile essays: "Retributive Puishment", read before the Jowett Society on 30 November 1921 [but ]; "Talk", read before the New College Essay Society in January 1922 [but ]; and "The Self", read on 10 November 1922 before the Moral Science Club in Cambridge [but ]. [9]

Secondly, Harrod wrote a number of letters and articles for the press on economic policy, politics and social matters. Not all of these are readily accessible to the reader, having been published in newspapers not easily found outside Britain: most of these items originally appeared in The Times, but Harrod also wrote for the Daily Telegraph, the Evening Standard, the Manchester Guardian, and for periodicals like the Oxford Magazine, the Overseas League Magazine, Anglodania, the Spectator and others. In the light of difficulties in accessing these sources and the inconvenience of going through microfilms, it seemed appropriate to republish them here.

The materials presented in this edition are therefore heterogeneous in nature, and refer to extremely diverse topics. Moreover, Harrod was often engaged in debates on several fronts and in exchanges of correspondence relating to different subjects; the writing of essays or newspaper articles frequently overlapped chronologically. This confusing--but in a way fortunate--state of affairs due to the abundance of extant documents, requires--beyond the index--a reference apparatus enabling the reader to find his or her way through these volumes. The letters belonging to a given exchange are thus connected to each other by a self-explanatory system of cross-references, indicating whether the letter replies to, follows on from, is continued at, or is answered by, another letter reproduced here. Further references, where necessary, are provided in the notes.

An experimental electronic version of this edition can be reached via the Harrod Home page at http://economia.unipv.it/harrod . With respect to the printed version, the digital one has some drawbacks and some advantages. The disadvantages are due to its incompleteness in consequence of some copyright holders not having given permission to publish on-line, and to some formatting having gone lost in the mechanically operated change of format. The digital format is liable to changes in the standards, and it is therefore not possible to guarantee that the site can be indefinitely maintained and updated. On the other hand, the electronic edition is fully searchable: the reader can therefore navigate the documents collected here without being constrained by the editor's own schematism, which reflect his interpretation of Harrod's and his correspondents' writings, in assembling the names and subject index. Moreover, the electronic version can and does include documents that cannot be incorporated in the printed version in reason of the cost of doing so: the reader will therefore find reproductions of some of the originals transcribed in the printed edition complemented with reproductions of documents to which it was only possible to refer in footnotes. The electronic edition is therefore meant to constitute a complement to, and not a substitute for, the printed version.

Editorial Apparatus

Editing a text or historical documents always involves some degree of editorial intrusion. With the impossibility of conveying all the nuances of the text, the details of inscriptions and the appearance of the source other than by reproducing the document itself, the editor has to make some decision regarding the conventions to follow in the transcription, how to organize the editorial apparatus, the system of symbols, what parts of the text can be normalized or emended, and so forth. The problem is to find a reasonable compromise between the general reader's need to be able to read the text with ease and some scholars' specific need to have an exact duplicate of the original source text.

The solution adopted here consists in leaving the text as it is in the original, with a limited number of specific exceptions meant to facilitate reading and give homogeneity to the layout. Indications as to the emendations to the text, the physical description of the document and full details of its location, whether it is the original or a copy, whether it is autograph or typescript, and other relevant information regarding the document, are given in lettered source notes printed at the end of each document, which the general reader can omit.

The following list of alterations introduced to the text is exhaustive. Firstly, dates are written in extenso, datelines are normalized, as are greeting and closing lines, mathematical symbols (in particular, variables are italicized, the division symbol is indicated by «», and equalities in ratios are indicated by «=» rather than by «::»), and indentation (extra spaces between paragraphs, however, are maintained). Similarly, the address of the recipient, when written in the body of the letter, is reproduced at the end on a single line (line breaks in the original are separated by commas), while the address of the sender--also on a single line--is printed at the head of the letter. "Scary quotes" are normally substituted by quotation marks, unless indicating quotations within quotations. Equations and figures are reproduced in a more suitable typographical form; the original position of the latter, however, is indicated. Spacing in the signature is silently reinstated: «JMKeynes», for instance, is rendered as «J M Keynes». Salutations, which Harrod often scribbled approximately as «Yrs vy sicly» and his correspondents occasionaly abbreviated, are silently expanded.

Secondly, a number of emendations to the text have been introduced. Most of these concern misprints or misspellings. These belong to the nature of materials not originally meant for publication, and give them their particular flavour, together with the idiosyncrasies of each particular writer. The latter have been kept, together with archaic usage of words. For instance, Harrod systematically omitted the apostrophe in contractions such as «don't» or «shouldn't», which he wrote «dont» and «shouldnt» respectively, and inconsistently used British and American spellings, in particular the forms «-ise» and «-ize». Or again, occurrences of words as «develope» of forms as «400 millions» have been kept, their meaning always being unambiguous. However, misspellings disturb the fluency of reading, and it is therefore convenient to emend them. In such cases, emendations are overtly indicated in the lettered source notes printed at the end of each document.

In contrast with the procedure adopted for misspellings, unambiguous omissions of punctuation in the source are corrected silently. Sometimes the full stop is missing (or no longer visible) in the source at the end of sentences or periods, or abbreviations like «e.g.», «i.e.», «etc.», «p.», «viz.», and so forth are further abbreviated by omitting the full stop. Such cases occur fairly often, and the reader would find an excessive number of lettered source notes indicating the absence of a dot disturbing, especially considering that in the documents reproduced here, contrary to some literary texts, the omission of punctuation can hardly be thought to be meaningful. This is not the case when missing or misplaced punctuation renders the sentence ambiguous. In such cases, the emendation becomes semantic interpretation, and is therefore indicated by a lettered source note. Analogously, excess punctuation, as for instance after chapter numbers, is silently emendated. Likewise, capitalization at the beginning of sentences is silently reintroduced when missing.

Thirdly, abbreviations and contractions, when unambiguous, have been expanded; the expansion is indicated by square brackets: for instance, «marg.» is rendered as «marg[inal].». Only the first of repeated abbreviations within the same letter is expanded. In case of ambiguities, these are indicated in the lettered source notes. Fourthly, authorial cancellations are not reproduced, unless relevant. In such case, the passages crossed out are reproduced in numbered editorial notes.

Such notes, printed at the end of each document, complement the text by providing cross-references to passages cited in the source relating to other documents reproduced in these volumes, and complete references to published or unpublished sources. Rarely are there extracts of published documents; more often there are extracts of unpublished documents. These notes are thus not meant to be exegetic, but only to point to other connected documentary sources or to define the context of the issues under discussion.

Footnotes are reserved for the author's own notes at the foot or at the margin of the page, or for the recipient's comments.

The American style convention of inserting punctuation within quotation marks is adopted throughout in the editorial materials, unless the passage cited concludes with different punctuation. In the transcription of documents, the original order is maintained.

References to writings cited more than five times are abbreviated (for instance, «Robertson, Banking Policy and the Price Level (1926)»), and complete references are given in the Bibliography. Other writings are cited in full. The Bibliography includes a complete list of Harrod's interwar writings; all references to them are indicated by abbreviated title and date (for instance «Harrod, "L'Université d'Oxford" ( 1937:5 )»).


In transcription the following conventions are used. The author's own emphasis (normally indicated by underlining) is rendered by means of italics (unless confusion would be possible, as in the case of emphasis on a variable: on such occasions, the alternative form for emphasis is indicated in a lettered source note). Underlined words indicate underlining by the recipient.

When more than one version of a letter or of an annexed document survive, the version reported is the closest to the one Harrod had actually received, or to the one he actually sent. Major differences between drafts are indicated in editorial notes, while the simple omission of textual corrections or emphasis in surviving carbon copies are not pointed out, unless relevant.

When the paragraph numbering style is inconsistent within a document, or when it is not easily reproduced typographically, it is silently homogenized or substituted by a more convenient notation (unless such choice could generate confusion, the one more frequently used by Harrod is adopted, that is, (i), (ii), (iii) etc.).

  1. 1. Harrod to Florence Ada Keynes, 7 November 1950, in HP III-250/2.

    2. James Lee-Milnes recorded in his diaries: "[Harrod] kept every single letter he received for over sixty years, tying them in bundles labelled by the year. From these Billa [Harrod's wife] has already extracted correspondence with Maynard Keynes and others about his subjects, viz. economics and philosophy, which she has put in the hands of an agent. He tells her that she may get as much as £100,000 for these alone from Japan or USA. Apparently the Japanese venerate him." (J. Lee-Milne, Holy Dread: Diaries, 1982-1984, edited by M. Bloch, London: John Murray, 2001, p. 48) The collection referred to was eventually acquired by Chiba University of Commerce: for further details see [jump to page] .

    3. In 1967, Harrod sold a number of runs of journals and books; what is found in Nagoya is therefore not Harrod's complete collection. The documents relating to the dealings are in HPBL Add 72769.

    4. This made it impossible to the present editor to ask for advice in case of difficulties in interpreting handwritings.

    5. The reference numbers provided in this edition reflect the state of reclassification to 1 March 2001. There will therefore be some slight discrepancies between some of the numbering provided here and what will be found at later dates in the Harrod Papers. This, however, will not constitute a problem for scholars. In fact, the ordering and the folder numbering devised by Riley-Smith are being preserved. The new cataloging only provides a more precise itemization: the items are arranged in chronological order within each folder; to the old catalog number, which indicates the folder, a progressive number is appended which specifies the position of the item within the folder.

    6. Date of the accompanying letter.

    7. For example, Harrod later described his long 1938 exchange with Kaldor (letter 765 and following) as "Correspondence with Kaldor on Rate of Interest and Wages" (HP IV-669-688); he attached to his 1926 paper on "Morals and Arithmetic" read before the Philosophical Society (essay 3 ) a note explaining that "Mr. Churchill who was dining in Christ Church rather pressed me to let him come and hear it. But I was rather shy and said it would not interest him" (HP V-107); finally, on 8 May, 1945, when he gathered the correspondence relating to his 1928 rejected article expounding the notion of marginal revenue (essay 6 ), Harrod wrote a note describing the events, which began with the following statement: "This letter is of some interest for the history of economic thought" (HP IV-963-973).

    8. Harrod's hoarding instinct led him to preserve seminal letters and documents along with the tiniest scraps of paper filled with fragmentary notes or calculations. It is difficult to judge which of these were meant to be made public. Most of, but by no means all, the documents that one would expect to find among Harrod's papers after seeing them cited in other extant notes or letters are indeed there. This begs the question of whether, for instance, the disappearance of all documents relating to Harrod's involvement with the New Fabian Research Bureau between 1931 and 1934 is accidental or by design, and whether some of Harrod's letters to Keynes concerning his own career ended up in his files by accident or because he preferred not to make them available to researchers before his own death.

    With reference to the documents concerning the writing of Keynes's biography, Harrod described to Keynes's mother his intention regarding the ordering and selection process: "I have two large drawers of a tallboy filled with papers connected with the Life [of Keynes]; there are large files of correspondence etc. Some time I should go through this destroying merely routine letters, but keeping papers of interest that bear upon the genesis of my book, anyhow for a time. [...] Perhaps I shall be able to get them in some regular order" (Harrod to Florence Ada Keynes, 7 November 1950, in HP III-250/2). This description could possibly reflect Harrod's intended method of organizing his papers, because it is certain that he had started writing prefatory notes to some blocks of correspondence at least five years earlier, while some diary-like explanatory notes were kept with some documents already two decades earlier. The reference to the destruction of the `routine paper', however, does not always correspond to what one finds, nor with what one does not find in the Harrod papers.

    9. The Ms of these essays are in HCN, Box 12. More details and context are given in note 1 to letter 32 R, note 1 to letter 21 R, and note 4 to letter 39 R, respectively.

top of page

Return to index of this section

Go to previous page

Go to next page