Chronology of Harrod's life and career

 
1900, 13 February Henry Roy Forbes Harrod is born to Henry Dawes Harrod and Frances Forbes-Robertson.
1907 Roy's father looses everything on the stock exchange, and he will never recover his fortune.
1911 Harrod wins a scholarship to St. Paul's School, London
1913 Harrod enters Westminster School, London. His main interest is in classics
1917, December Harrod is elected New College Scholar. Now he is more interested in History.
1918, Lent term Harrod is Monitor of Ashburnham House, Westminster School (82 pupils)
1918 Harrod's father dies.
1918 Harrod joins the army as a Cadet, but the armistice came while he was still training.
1919, 21 January Harrod matriculates at New College. He takes "Greats", i.e. Classics
1919-1921 Greats at New College. Harrod attendeds the following lectures: H. W. B. Joseph on "Plato, Republic I-IV"; E. M. Walker on "Aristotle, 'Politeia", M. Holroyd, "Outlines of Ancient History, B.C. 415 to 146", M. N. Tod, "Greek historical inscriptions", E. M. Walker on "Peloponnesian War", J. A. R. Munro on "Athenian History", W. D. Ross, " Introduction to Metaphisics", J. L . Stocks's lectures on "Aristotle, Ethics", W. H. Moberly on "Locke, Berkeley and Hume", Lindsay on "Theory of the State", J. A. Smith, "Metaphisics" and "The Conception of value in Aestetics and Logic", "The Judgement", by H. H. Joachim, "Tacitus, Annals I and XI-XVI", by H. M. Last, J. C. G. Anderson, "Geography and Civilization of the Eastern Roman Provinces (Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt)", J. L. Myres, "Informal Instruction (Alexander)" , H. B. W. Joseph's lectures on "Justice and Wages", G. H. Hardy, "Elements of Mathematics for Philosophers", "Tacitus, Annals I and XI-XVI", by H. M. Last, J. A. Smith, "Memory", E. M. Walker on "Diodorus, Book XVI"
1919-22 Harrod takes par in various Clubs and Societies activities: XX Club, Oxford Union Society, New College Essay Society, Jowett Society, Russell and Palmerstone
1919, December Harrod canvasses for John Simon, unsuccessfully fighting a by-election at Spen Valley
July 1921 Harrod gets a first class in Greats.
1921-22 Harrod takes Modern History. In one year he gains another First Class
1922, July Harrod is elected Lecturer at Christ Church. The college grants him two terms leave to get acquainted with the new subject he will have to teach: economics (for a few years, however, Harrod also taught history)
1922, Michaelmas Harrod is at King's College; he takes weekly essays to Keynes; he is scheduled to read a paper on "Should Pigou be read in Oxford" before the Ec. Society, and an essay on "Self" before the Moral Science Club (10 November); frequently dines and had tea with Braithwaite and Ramsey
1923, Hilary Harrod is in Berlin; he attends lectures by Prof. Bonn and Melchior Palyi; slow progress in reading German
1923, 3 July Harrod is accepted as a Lecturer in History and Economics at Christ Church
1923, Michaelmas Harrod lectures on "Money"
1924, Hilary Harrod teaches on "English Currency and Banking Problems (XIX Century)
1924, 7 May Harrod is officially elected Student of Christ Church
1924, July Harrod consider to apply for a post in philosophy at New College; this leads to the reduction of his burden of History teaching at Christ Church
1924, September Harrod holds a class for the Worker's Education Association
1924, Michaelmas Harrod teaches on "Monetary Theory"
1924, December Edgeworth invites Harrod to review H. Bosanquet's Free Trade; this was eventually published in EJ, June 1925
1925, Hilary Harrod teaches "Monetary Theory (cont.)" and "English Currency and Banking Problems (XIX Century).
1925, March Harrod plans to get paid tutorials in mathematics
1925, April Harrod accepts to read a paper to the British Association: "The Trade Cycle and the Theory of Distribution"
1925, May Harrod canvasses for Asquith in the election for the Chancellorship of the University
1925 August Harrod is involved, as Secretary, in a research on Cartels for the British (later Royal) Institute of International Affairs.
1925, Michaelmas Harrod lectures on Ricardo. Topics included: "R.s Theory of value"; "Determination of value"; "Population"; "Taxation"; "Theory of value and theory of distribution"
1925, November Harrod is appointed tutor for classes in Economics for the Joint Committee for the Promotion of the Higher Education of Working People
1926, Jan.-Feb. Harrod considers writing a book on the Federal Reserve System; he discusses with Macgregor of lecturing on the topic.
1926, Hilary Harrod lectures on "Monetary theory"
1926 Trinity Harrod lectures on "Monetary Theory (cont.) and on the "Federal Reserve System (8 lectures)"
1926, May Harrod criticises Robertson's Banking Policy and the Price Level. This will lead to the publication of a review in 1927.
1926, September Harrod reviews I. Fisher's Mathematical Investigations
1926, October Harrod accept to associate in the General Federation of Trade Unions' Research on the causes and possible remedies to unemployment, for which he writes three memoranda (one of which published, 1928)
1926, Michaelmas Harrod lectures on "Banking and Currency problems in England XIX Century)" and on "Some Problems in Economic Theory"
1926, November Harrod reads a paper on "Moral and Arithmetics" to the Philosophical, and discusse it in correspondence with Joseph.
1926, December Harrod reviews Leaf's Banking for the EJ (published in March, 1927, approved by Keynes)
1926, Xmas Harrod becomes Junior Censor at Christ Church (until 1929)
1927, January Keynes asks Harrod to write a book on International Economics. Harrod at first does not feel up to the task. He actually starts writing it in 1932, probably as a consequence of the 1931 events, and the book will eventually appear in 1933
1927, Hilary Harrod lectures on "Money"
1927, Michaelmas Harrod lectures on "Ricardo"
1928, Trinity Harrod lectures on "International Economics" and on "Federal Reserve System (4 lectures)"
1928, July Harrod writes "Notes on Monopoly and Quasi-Competition", the paper where he introduces the marginal revenue concept. Keynes and Ramsey find that part of the paper "neat", but are doubtful about other parts, and the paper is rejected. Ramsey later withdrew his objections, and the paper was published in 1930.
1928, July or August Harrod suffers from a nervous breakdown.
1928, Michaelmas Harrod lectures on "Money"
1929 Harrod is elected to the Hebdomadal Council
1929, Hilary Harrod lectures on "Money (cont.)"
1929, March The committee of University Lecturers recomends the appointment of Harrod as University lecturer in Economics
1929, July Harrod applies for membership to The Athenæum; the election takes place in 1933
1929, Michaelmas Harrod lectures on "Economic Theory I, Classical (Ricardo)".
1929, Xmas Harrod become Senior Censor at Christ Church, until the end of 1931.
1930, 22 January Harrod takes part in the discussion of Robertson's paper on "How do we want gold to behave" at Chatham House (this was part of the research leading to the publication of The International Gold Problem, 1931, pp. 29-30
1930, January Harrod takes part in the Committee of Inquiry into the Bodleian Library. Meetings end in March 1931; Harrod writes a minority report.
1930, Hilary Harrod lectures on "Modern Economic Theory"
1930, Trinity Harrod lectures on "Federal Reserve System"
1930, June Harrod's "Note on Supply" (a revised version of a manuscript submitted in 1928) appears in the Economic Journal.
1930, Autumn Harrod visits a number of US libraries. He meets Whitehead (with whom he was in friendly terms when Whitehead was in England), and is told about Nicod's work: "When I visited Harvard in 1930, Alfred North Whitehead told me that he regarded Nicod as one of the most distinguished philosophers of recent vintage and how much he regretted his death". Harrod later supervised a new translation of Nicod's book into English.
1931, Hilary Harrod lectures on "Money"
1931, Trinity Harrod lectures on "Federal Reserve System"
1931, March Harrod supplies an entry on "Member Bank" for the Oxford English Dictionary. Other entries will follow.
1931, October Harrod is exasperated by the political situation; he delivers speeches as a Liberal in support of free trade Labour candidates where there is a straight fight against a Conservative. He writes a pamphlet on Tariffs; this probably stimulates him to start working at International Economics.
1931, Michaelmas Harrod lectures on "Ricardo"
1931, December Harrod's "The Law of Decreasing Costs" is published in the Economic Journal; Joan Robinson points out a mistake in the diagram
1932, Hilary Harrod lectures on "Problems in Economic Theory"
1932, March A draft of International Economics is ready and is discussed with Robertson; later other drafts are discussed also with James Meade and Keynes.
1932, April-September 1933 Harrod is engaged in a debate on Decreasing Costs, in print (in the Economic Journal) and in correspondence, with R. G. D. Allen, Kahn, Joan Robinson, Shove.
1932, June-November Harrod writes several letters to the press to influence economic policy.
1932, Michaelmas Harrod lectures on "Money"
1933 Harrod is elected as a member of the Council of the Royal Economic Society
1933, Hilary Harrod lectures on "Money (Cont.)"
1933, February Harrod is offered the Chair of Economics at Liverpool, which he does not accept.
1933, 14 March Harrod delivers a lecture on Utility at the L.S.E.
1933, April Harrod discusses with Robertson of Keynes's `Foreign balance' doctrine and of the saving-investment relationship
1933, October Harrod reviews Pigou's Theory of Unemployment (published Economic Journal, 1934)
1933, October Harrod is invited to contribute a review article on imperfect competition for the Quarterly Journal of Economics (eventually published in August 1934)
1933, Michaelmas Harrod lectures on "Some questions of economic theory"
1933, November Harrod, with some of his Oxford colleagues, writes a letter to President Roosevelt
1934, Hilary Harrod lectures on "Some points of Trade Cycle Theory". These are Harrod's only inter-war lectures on the trade cycle.
1934, Trinity Harrod lectures on "Introduction to Money"
1934, June Harrod suggests to Meade and Henderson to begin some factual inquiries. From this, the Oxford Economists Research Group will grow out.
1934, August - Feb-1935 Harrod discusses of saving and investment with Haberler, Robertson and Kahn (from the latter he first hears of the recent developments in Keynes's thought, but the correspondence indicates that he failed to understand what was going on)
1934, November Harrod presents a scheme to the Board of Social Sciences Studies towards the reform of social studies (which was under discussion at the time resulting, among other things, in the creationof the Oxford Institute of Statistics) involving specialization in mathematical and analytical economics
1934, November Harrod writes on population in Oxford Magazine. This begins a long series of articles in the press and in learned journals.
1934, 25 November Harrod speaks at Christ Church on "Utilitarianism Revised" before the Philosophical Society. This is published in 1936 in Mind.
1934, December Harrod helps the philosopher Ayer to find a position at Christ Church, by inducing Moore and Whitehead to write in his favour.

 

1935, Hilary Harrod lectures on "Currency and Credit"; twice weekly
1935, March-April Harrod begins experimenting with the acceleration principle in connection with the trade cycle and growth (he probably learned of this possibility from Haberler's draft (1934) of the first part of what was to become Prosperity and Depression (1937), which he discussed at length with the author. (see Harrod's brief review)
1935, Trinity Harrod lectures on "Federal Reserve System": once weekly
1935, July Harrod takes part in the Meeting of Economists organized by the Antwerp Chamber of Commerce, held on 11&endash;13 July 1935, with the participation of F. Bauduin, M. Ansiaux, L. Dechesne, G. De Leener, R. Miry, B. S. Chlepner, G. Craen, L. H. Dupriez, R. P. Muller (Belgium), Bertrand Nogaro (France), Harrod, Henderson and Keynes (Great Britain), Ohlin (Sweden) and G. M. Verryn Stuart (Netherlands). He reads a paper on "A Comment on the Questions for Discussion"
1935, July-Sept. Harrod reads the proofs of Keynes's General Theory, and discusses them at length with the author.
1935, Sept.-Nov. Harrod discusses with Robertson of saving, investment and lags with respect to the General Theory, to his review of Durbin's book, and to Robertson's Ts on "Money Flows"
1935, Michaelmas Harrod lectures on "Economic Theory" (twice weekly) and on "Ricardo"
1935, October Harrod submits "Utilitarianism Revised" to Mind; this is eventually published in April 1936
1935, 11 Nov. Harrod start thinking of writing an article relating the General Theory to traditional theory. This will eventually be read at the Oxford meetig of the Econometric society, and published in Econometrica in February 1937 as "Mr. Keynes and Traditional Theory"
1936, 10 Jan. Harrod reads a paper in Copenhagen on "The choice of a Currency Policy" where his trade cycle theory is first outlined.
1936, January-June Harrod writes The Trade Cycle and discusses it with Meade, Robertson, Henderson, M. Allen
1936, Hilary Harrod lectures on "Economic Theory (Cont.)".
1936, 31 January The Oxford Economists' Research Group begins the interviews with entrepreneurs.
1936, March Harrod is elected ordinary member of the Oxford University Political Economy Club
1936, March-April Harrod discusses with the author of Hederson's "Mr. Keynes's Theory"
1936, Trinity Harrod lectures on "Introduction to Money"
1936, August-October Harrod backs Lindemann's candidature as an Independent Conservative in the Oxford University by-election.
1936, September-June 1939 "We must have larger families" inaugurates a long series of articles on the population question
1936, Michaelmas Harrod lectures on "Introduction to Money (Cont.)"
1936, 2 Dec. Harrod opens a discussion at the Oxford University Political Economy Club on "Can economic measures avert the impending extinction of the human species?"
1936, December Harrod and Robertson discuss of their reciprocal interpretations of Keynes
1937 Harrod is elected Honorary Secretary of the Royal Economic Society (jointly with L. L. Price).
1937, Hilary Harrod lectures on "Population". Once weekly
1937, Jan.-Oct. Harrod argues out with Hawtrey The Trade Cycle and Hawtrey's Capital and Employment
1937, February Harrod, Robertson and Keynes discuss of the foreign trade multiplier in connection with Harrod's Trade Cycle
1937, February Harrod's "teaching in Oxford" gives rise to praise for the words on Edgeworth, and to Robbins's bitter reaction
1937, Feb.-June After attending Keynes's Galton Lecture before the Eugenics Society, Harrod discusses with him of roundaboutess and demand for capital; later this factor will be discussed with Hawtrey and Joan Robinson (in May, in connection with Harrod's review of her Essays in the Theory of Employment), leading to Harrod's notion of neutrality for technical progress
1937, Trinity Harrod lectures on the "Federal Reserve System"
1937, May Harrod signes Meade's collective letter to The Times on "Action against a Slump", and comments upon it.
1937, spring or Summer Harrod is engaged to Whilelmine "Billa" Cresswell
1937, July The Manchester Guardian published two articles by Harrod, "Action against a Slump"
1937, July Harrod is invited to discuss Tinbergen's statistical investigation on Business Cycle Theory. The meetings will take place in Geneva in September
1937, end of August Harrod reads a paper on the OERG's interviews to entrepreneurs before the British Association.
1937, Michaelmas Harrod teaches on "Economic Theory" and on "Economic Organization in Britain"
1937, December Harrod is elected President of Section F of the British Association, and starts organizing the meeting to be held in Cambridge in August 1938.
1938, 8 January Harrod marries Billa
1938, Lent term (the first term in the year is renamed) Harrod lectures on "Economic Theory (Cont.)"
1938, April "the Future of Gold" is published in The Banker; a copy is sent to Churchill
1938, May-Aug. Harrod and Kaldor discuss on the rate of interest and demand for capital
1938, July-August Harrod and Robertson discuss of the latter's "A Survey of Modern Monetary controversy"; Harrod introduces the idea of a `normal' rate of growth.
1938, July-August Harrod drafts the "Essay in Dynamic Theory", where the famous growth rate formulas are first expounded. In august-September this is discussed at length with Keynes and Marschak. A drastically revised version will appear in the Economic Journal, March 1939
1938, summer Harrod thinks of a second edition of The Trade Cycle, and eventually proposes to gather a collection of essays under the title Beyond the traditional Economics
1938, July-Sept. 1939 Harrod writes a series of articles on the recession, as a consequence of which he is invited to give evidence to, and later to collaborate with, the Parliamentary Monetary Committee
1938, October-spring 1939 Harrod is involved in the attempt to organise an electoral pact between the forces opposing the National Government
1938, Michaelmas Harrod lectures on "Introduction to Money"
1938, Sept.-Oct. Harrod revises International Economics
October 1938-April 1939 Harrod advertises mercenary lectures on "Banking Policy and the Trade Cycle", "Trade Recession and Defence Expenditure" and "Our Declining Birth-Rate"
1938 or 1939 Harrod is elected by the Nuffield Committee to a Faculty Fellowship at Nuffield College (Faculty Fellows being Fellows of Nuffield belonging also to other Colleges)
1939, Lent Harrod teaches on the "Federal reserve System" and on "Cost and Profit"
1939, Trinity Harrod lectures on "Introduction to Money (8 lectures)"
1939, July the BBC broadcasts a lecture by Harrod on Marx for 6th form students
1939, July-August Harrod sends a memorandum to the Treasury on using the gold in the Exchange Eq. Accont to buy commodities; a further memo is sent to Hawtrey
1939, August-September Harrod writes to Hawtrey and Keynes to get a position in the Treasury

 
1940, 1 January Harrod joins Churchill's "S-branch", under the direction of F. A. Lindemann (Lord Cherwell)
1942, January "Memory", on the inductive process justifying our reliance on memory, appears in Mind.
1942, spring Harrod leaves the S branch and returns to Oxford
1943 Harrod gives evidence before the Royal Commission on Population.
1944 Harrod writes A liberal plan for peace (anonymous).
1945 Harrod unsuccessfullly stands as a Liberal at the General election
1945 Harrod becomes joint Editor of the Economic Journal, with E. A. G. Robinson. He will retain the position until 1961.
1945 Harrod gives evidence before the Royal Commission on Equal Pay for Men and Women.
1945 Harrod fails to be elected to the Drummond Chair of Political Economy
1945, end Harrod writes A page of British folly.
1946 Harrod lectures at the London School of Economics on Dynamics. The lectures are published in 1948 as Towards a Dynamic Economics.
1946 Harrod writes an obituary of Keynes; Keynes's brother Geoffrey entrusted him with writing the official biography. This is published in 1951 as The Life of John Maynard Keynes. (see one of Harrod's articles on Keynes, in the Review of Economics and Statistics, 1946)
1946-48 Harrod was a member of the Liberal shadow cabinet
1947 Harrod is elected a Fellow of the British Academy.
1947-50 Harrodf is member of the U.N. sub-commission on Employment and Stability
1948 Towards a Dynamic Economics, delivered in 1946 as a series of lectures at the London School of Economics, is published
1952 Harrod became Nuffield Reader in International Economics
1952-53 Harrod serves as economic adviser to the International Monetary Found.
1956 Harrod turns Conservative in politics; he seeked adoption as a Conservative candidate, but nothwistanding Churchill's support he failed to be adopted.
1956 Foundations of Inductive Logic is published, coronating 20 years fo thinking on the subject. He failed, however, to convince philosophers that he had solved Hume's problem, but kept thinking this boook to be his best one.
1956 Harrod is awarder the Bernard Harms prize by ther University of Kiel
1959 Harrod is knighted
He was Curator of Pictures and of the Senior Common Room at Christ Church
1962-64 Harrod serves as President of the Royal Economic Society
1964-70 Harrod is frequently visiting professor at the University of Pennsylvania
1967 Harrod retires; but, of course, keeps writing
1973 Economic Dynamics (nominally a second edition of Towards a Dynamic Economics, 1948, but in reality a new book) is published
1974 "A pure theory of growth economics" is published.
1978, 8 March Harrod dies at Holt (Norfolk)